Determining the optimum percentages of fly ash, metakaolin and copper slag by replacing cement and fine aggregate in m30 grade concrete

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Abstract

The overall production of the cement has greatly increased which results lots of problems in environment as it involves the emission of CO2   gas.  Environmental concerns, stemming from the high energy expense and carbon dioxide emission associated with cement manufacture have brought about pressures to reduce cement consumption through the use of supplementary materials. Materials such as Metakaolin, fly ash have good pozzolanic activity and are a good material for the production of high strength concrete. Copper slag is a by-product of copper extraction by smelting. Copper slag can be used in concrete production as a partial replacement for sand. However, it is expected that the use of Metakaolin, Fly ash and Copper slag in concrete improves the strength properties of concrete.


Keywords: Supplementary cementitious material, Cement, Fine aggregate

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Stephen Isaac

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